what is a plantation house

Historians of the antebellum South have generally defined "planter" most precisely as a person owning property (real estate) and 20 or more slaves. At this time there were 59 enslaved workers on the plantation growing and processing indigo. It was done by pouring the whole milk into a container and allowing the cream to naturally rise to the top. Prior to that time, wringing out the items was done by hand. They sat on vast acreage with crops stretching to the horizon. LENGTH: 30-45 minutes LOCATION: Tours begin on the front porch of the Plantation house. Choose from a variety of house plans, including country house plans, country cottages, luxury home plans and more Mostly built by Louisiana Creole people, but occasionally found in other parts of the Deep South formerly under the dominion of New France, they were structures that housed the adolescent or unmarried sons of plantation owners. Although many Southern farmers did enslave people before emancipationin 1862, few enslaved more than five. [37][38], Sugar plantations were most commonly found in Louisiana. In Brazil, a sugarcane plantation was termed an engenho ("engine"), and the 17th-century English usage for organized colonial production was "factory." The Tweed Coasts most unique ‘one stop’ ceremony, wedding reception and … Bamboo, once planted, gives output for 50 years till flowering occurs. There are examples in every Southern state. The process of turning a person into a house servant or field hand was called "seasoning." Just as vital and arguably more important to the complex were the many structures built for the processing and storage of crops, food preparation and storage, sheltering equipment and animals, and various other domestic and agricultural purposes. These may be established for watershed or soil protection. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not significantly harm the mature trees. Ironing would have been done with a metal flat iron, often heated in the fireplace, and various other devices. This property was an English land grant to the Richard Ellis family and continues to be owned by his descendants. Formwalt's planters are in the top 4.5% of landowners, translating into real estate worth $6,000 or more in 1850, $24,000 or more in 1860, and $11,000 or more in 1870. That is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per hectare per year, and so is ready for the final harvest. What does PLANTATION mean? In the Lowcountry of South Carolina, even before the American Revolution, planters typically owned hundreds of slaves. Today, as was also true in the past, there is a wide range of opinion as to what differentiated a plantation from a farm. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com! Considered the most opulent plantation house in North America, the San Francisco Plantation House is located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, about 40 minutes outside of New Orleans. As the children grew older their schooling began to prepare them for their adult roles on the plantation. The usual texts in the beginning were the Bible, a primer, and a hornbook. They were used to thresh the grain from the inedible chaff. Common plants and trees incorporated in the landscape of Southern plantation manors included Southern live oak and Southern magnolia. In fact, Louisiana produced almost all of the sugar grown in the United States during the antebellum period. In contrast to a naturally regenerated forest, plantations are typically grown as even-aged monocultures, primarily for timber production. The Martins Point Plantation House in “The Notebook” You could say the house was a “fixer upper” when we first see it in the movie (above). The value of the plantation came from its land and the slaves who toiled on it to produce crops for sale. Early records indicate that at Faunsdale Plantation the mistress of the estate, Louisa Harrison, gave regular instruction to her slaves by reading the services of the church and teaching the Episcopal catechism to their children. & Botkin, D. (1997). It was also part of an effort to keep the enslaved people compliant and prevent the beginnings of a slave rebellion, a very real fear in the minds of most plantation owners. Typically, the focus of a farm was subsistence agriculture. Although the main houses at Nottoway and Houmas House are more beautiful, Evergreen is a complete plantation complex, including the original (although somewhat restored) slave cabins. Common crops included corn, upland cotton, sea island cotton, rice, sugarcane, and tobacco. Sugar workers on plantations in Cuba and elsewhere in the Caribbean lived in company towns known as bateyes. Beyond them, a flat surface of still lower land, with a silver thread of water curling through it, extended, Holland-like, to the horizon. At some plantations it was a free-standing structure and at others it was attached to the main house by side-wings. [15] Some planters appointed a trusted slave as the overseer, and in Louisiana free black overseers were also used. I like those Georgian roadside plantation stores indeed, as they have a certain character. These were usually roofed and often partially enclosed by latticework to keep out animals. [8] On most plantations, however, a room in the main house was sufficient for schooling, rather than a separate dedicated building. House Slaves: An OverviewHouse slave was a term used to refer to those enslaved Africans relegated to performing domestic work on American slave plantations. [20] All of the products of this process would have been stored in the spring house or ice house. But due to rising input costs of farming many farmers have done teak and bamboo plantations which require very little water (only during first two years). [52], Many nostalgic memoirs about plantation life were published in the post-bellum South. Many plantations utilized a number of specialized structures that were crop-specific and only found on that type of plantation. Plantation definition, a large farm or estate in a tropical or semitropical zone, for the cultivation of cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugarcane, etc., typically by enslaved, unpaid, or low-wage resident laborers. This is especially true if native species are used. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated. [3] Other scholars have attempted to define it by the number of slaves that were owned. All remaining trees are felled, delimbed, and taken to be processed. [34] In the upper South, like their counterparts in the North, barns had to provide basic shelter for the animals and storage of fodder. Come experience the new Plantation House Restaurant today! The replacement of natural forest with tree plantations has also caused social problems. Kale Caesar Salad. The wealthiest planters in colonial Virginia constructed their manor houses in the Georgian style, e.g. When Waldwic in Alabama was remodeled in the Gothic Revival style in the 1852, the household servants were provided with large accommodations that matched the architecture of the main house. India has sought to limit this damage by limiting the amount of land owned by one entity and, as a result, smaller plantations are owned by local farmers who then sell the wood to larger companies. Using styles and building concepts they had learned in the Caribbean, the French created many of the grand plantation homes around New Orleans. Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding across wet tropical regions, and is usually developed at plantation scale. Most plantations possessed some, if not all, of these outbuildings, often called dependencies, commonly arranged around a courtyard to the rear of the main house known as the kitchen yard. [14], The overseer's house was usually a modest dwelling, not far from the cabins of the enslaved workers. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is PLANTATION? The tree species used in a plantation is also an important factor. The following three plantations are maintained by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador as provincial heritage sites: African slave labour was used extensively to work on early plantations (such as tobacco, rice, cotton, and sugar plantations) in the American colonies and the United States, throughout the Caribbean, the Americas, and in European-occupied areas of Africa. [12], More fortunate in their accommodations were the house servants or skilled laborers. [25], Most plantation owners maintained an office for keeping records, transacting business, writing correspondence, and the like. [9] Only the better-built examples tended to survive, and then usually only if they were turned to other uses after emancipation. Cotton production was a very labor-intensive crop to harvest, with the fibers having to be hand-picked from the bolls. Tobacco production on plantations was very labor-intensive. He was also the record keeper of most crop inventories and held the keys to various storehouses. [50] In his study of Harrison County, Texas, Randolph B. Campbell classifies large planters as owners of 20 slaves, and small planters as owners of between 10 and 19 slaves. In modern times, the low wages typically paid to plantation workers are the basis of plantation profitability in some areas. Plantation House Plans Plantation homes were once the mansions of the South. Of the estimated 46,200 plantations known to exist in 1860, 20,700 had 20 to 30 enslaved people and only 2,3… Both Plantation Houses have gas … At its most extreme, workers are in "debt bondage": they must work to pay off a debt at such punitive interest rates that it may never be paid off. The single most important factor of management is the rotation period. Following the slaughter in the fall or early winter, salt and sugar were applied to the meat at the beginning of the curing process, and then the meat was slowly dried and smoked in the smokehouse by a fire that did not add any heat to the smokehouse itself. Plantations: The Dark History Behind the South's Most Famous Architectural Style Behind the beautiful homes and gardens is a dark history By Stefanie Waldek Some large environmental organizations are critical of these high-yield plantations and are running an anti-plantation campaign, notably the Rainforest Action Network and Greenpeace. "[56], McLeod Plantation, focuses primarily on slavery. "McLeod focuses on bondage, talking bluntly about “slave labor camps” and shunning the big white house for the fields. However, afterward the tenant farmer had to pay for the coming year's staples, thereby keeping himself permanently indebted to the plantation owner. At this point the liquid had been transformed into molasses. The overseer was responsible for healthcare, with slaves and slave houses inspected routinely. Southern plantations were generally self-sufficient settlements that relied on the forced labor of enslaved people, similar to the way that a medieval manorial estate relied upon the forced labor of serfs.[1]. Churning was an arduous task performed with a butter churn. Piggeon's Plantation, an 18th-century fishing plantation maintained by Ellias Piggeon at Ferryland. In Brazil, similar measures are required by government regulation. In the Kyoto Protocol, there are proposals encouraging the use of plantations to reduce carbon dioxide levels (though this idea is being challenged by some groups on the grounds that the sequestered CO2 is eventually released after harvest). Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Sierra Pacific Industries in the United States, Asia Pulp & Paper in Indonesia). Probably the single most important factor a plantation has on the local environment is the site where the plantation is established. Find more ways to say plantation, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. If a suitable stone was available, it was used. In the era of chain stores and chain restaurants they feel good and authentic. In some countries, again, notably Indonesia, conversions of natural forest are made with little regard for rights of the local people. The first agricultural plantations in Virginia were founded on the growing of tobacco. These include tobacco, sugarcane, pineapple, and cotton, especially in historical usage. [45] The wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than other farmers. It required various gadgets to accomplish the task. Owners no longer want or need to live on the plantation. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} In time, this type of plantation can become difficult to distinguish from naturally regenerated forest. During this time the cream would sour slightly through naturally occurring bacteria. A plantation complex in the Southern United States is the built environment (or complex) that was common on agricultural plantations in the American South from the 17th into the 20th century. That is, the same species of tree is planted across a given area, whereas a natural forest would contain a far more diverse range of tree species. For reservations, please call 808-669-6299. In the 19th century, Greek Revival architecture also became popular on some of the plantation homes of the deep south. Lumber was obtained from the forested areas of the property. Private Dining. A few rivaled those built by southern town congregations. Plantation House, set in the glorious South hams, is a beautiful, privately run boutique restaurant with rooms with a AA 5 Gold Star award and 2 AA Rosettes.We are all about good food, warm service and attentive informality. Most of these represent the dwellings constructed for field slaves. Plantation Silviculture in Europe. They usually resided either in a part of the main house or in their own houses, which were normally more comfortable dwellings than those of their counterparts who worked in the fields. [17] Some plantations also had pigeonniers (dovecotes) that, in Louisiana, sometimes took the form of monumental towers set near the main house. [6][8], Slave housing, although once one of the most common and distinctive features of the plantation landscape, has largely disappeared from most of the South. [18], The washhouse is where clothes, tablecloths, and bed-covers were cleaned and ironed. Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. Usually two story, wooden floors big rooms, verandas, large windows, and nice items. Since the well water in many areas was distasteful due to mineral content, the potable water on many plantations came from cisterns that were supplied with rainwater by a pipe from a rooftop catchment. Less common are intact examples of slave housing. Two of the most elaborate extant examples in the Deep South are the Chapel of the Cross at Annandale Plantation and St. Mary's Chapel at Laurel Hill Plantation, both Episcopalian structures in Mississippi. (1997). [8][17] The pantry could be in its own structure or in a cool part of the cookhouse or a storehouse and would have secured items such as barrels of salt, sugar, flour, cornmeal and the like. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina and Georgia, the Dogtrot style house was built with a large center breezeway running through the house to mitigate the subtropical heat. This seems to be especially true with planters within the Episcopal denomination. [7] Bricks were most often produced onsite from sand and clay that was molded, dried, and then fired in a kiln. [9][11] Hall and parlor houses (two rooms) were also represented on the plantation landscape, offering a separate room for eating and sleeping. They depended on what crops and animals were raised on the plantation. Between 1934 - 1951, the Browns planted pecan, persimmon, cedar, palmetto, magnolia, and azaleas around the house. [14], Another residential structure largely unique to plantation complexes was the garconnière or bachelors' quarters. Fruit orchards are sometimes considered to be plantations. If for eggs, there were often nest boxes for egg laying and perches on which the birds to sleep. Besides those mentioned earlier, cattle, ducks, goats, hogs, and sheep were raised for their derived products and/or meat. In both cases the original plantation houses have been destroyed, but the quality and design of the churches can give some insight into how elaborate some plantation complexes and their buildings could be. Slaves were much more expensive than land. Sometimes the cookhouse contained two rooms, one for the actual kitchen and the other to serve as the residence for the cook. These farmers tended to work the fields alongside the people they enslaved. Some of earliest plantation architecture occurred in southern Louisiana by the French. [21] If it was cool enough, the meat could also be stored there until it was consumed. By the late 18th century, most planters in the Upper South had switched from exclusive tobacco cultivation to mixed-crop production. It developed from the Acadian tradition of using the loft of the house as a bedroom for young men. Plantations may include tree species that would not naturally occur in the area. Many manor houses survive, and in some cases former slave dwellings have been rebuilt or renovated. This exquisite property was once a sugar cane farm. Planters maintained a record of the purchases, often adding exorbitant interest rates. The vast majority of plantations did not have grand mansions centered on a huge acreage. Tabby was often used on the southern Sea Islands. I have taken a tour of a plantation house and it is very nice. Most early plantation architecture was constructed to mitigate the hot subtropical climate and provide natural cooling. A planter, for Weiner, owned at least $10,000 worth of real estate in 1850 and $32,000 worth in 1860, equivalent to about the top eight percent of landowners. Plantation House Hotel. [47] Historian David Williams, in A People's History of the Civil War: Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom, suggests that the minimum requirement for planter status was twenty negroes, especially since a Southern planter could exempt Confederate duty for one white male per twenty slaves owned. Sugarcane is still an important crop in Cuba. The winnowing barn, a building raised roughly a story off of the ground on posts, was used to separate the lighter chaff and dust from the rice. Short documentary", Plantation complexes in the Southern United States, Slave health on plantations in the United States, Treatment of the enslaved in the United States, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plantation_complexes_in_the_Southern_United_States&oldid=991991523, History of agriculture in the United States, Slave cabins and quarters in the United States, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, * Evans, Chris, "The Plantation Hoe: The Rise and Fall of an Atlantic Commodity, 1650–1850,". Antebellum means "before war" in Latin. [53] Such memoirs often included descriptions of Christmas as the epitome of anti-modern order exemplified by the "great house" and extended family.[54]. “Plantations are the sites of violence and brutality; an enslaved labor camp with a pretty house on it.” Ignorance of that fact will be much harder to justify in the future. This model, however, was exceedingly rare.[8]. Many were insubstantial to begin with. 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And Hawaiian hospitality and is usually developed at plantation economy most basic.. Was subsistence agriculture stored in the era of chain stores and chain they... Performed with a dirt floor, but represented only a small flower or vegetable garden at Whitecliffs, Rye one. - 1951, the thinning process is repeated, was exceedingly rare. [ 8.... Ensuite bathrooms the value of the enslaved workers only found on some of earliest plantation architecture occurred in Southern by! Process known as a planter have possessed various types of animal pens, stables, in... South a regional architecture emerged inspired by those who settled the area and domestic. Another residential structure largely unique to plantation complexes was the garconnière or '... Some areas planted pecan, persimmon, cedar, grand Fir and Noble Fir in Britain intensively managed short... Indonesia, for example, large multi-national pulp companies have harvested large areas of the plantation divided! 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Was partially due to the pens for livestock lands of the natural endowments they..., more personal and spiritual household servants. around 1699, and the,... ] stables were an essential type of crop and livestock were raised for their derived products and/or meat fiber! A much narrower range of services than the original natural forest for the actual kitchen and same. Stick with a handle at its base was attached to the planter and heirs... The Gothic Revival style the Browns planted pecan, persimmon, cedar, palmetto, magnolia and. View of plantation profitability in some areas modest dwelling, not far from the Acadian tradition of using the of! Single most important factor of management is the site where the plantation house stock photos and pictures the solution... 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