mangrove restoration techniques

We measure mangrove ecosystem services such as fisheries, wave attenuation and microclimate regulation. One of the main challenges for Wetlands International in Guinea Bissau is mangrove restoration on abandoned rice fields. on the conservation and restoration of these valuable forests. - UN-REDD Programme Collaborative Online Workspace", "REDD and BLUE Carbon: Carbon Payments for Mangrove Conservation", "Communities take the lead to rehabilitate mangroves at Bahak Indah Beach, East Java, Indonesia", "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Red Mangrove Restoration Method In 2008, the United Nations launched the "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD)" program to combat climate change through the reduction of carbon emissions and enhancement of carbon sinks from forests. This Unit will introduce students to the techniques that have been used to restore or increase mangrove areas and teach students the key steps and considerations necessary before and after the implementation of rehabilitation and planting activities and projects. Environmental Regulation Office of Coastal Zone Management and the NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Mangrove Forests are the "Roots of the Sea" Mangrove forests are vital for healthy coastal ecosystems in many regions of the world and research and studies are revealing the unique importance of these habitats to the planet. 2006). The Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project was executed during 2010-2013 under the National Agricultural Research & Extension Institute. [22], Moreover, the Mangroves for the Future (MFF) initiative, led by IUCN and UNDP, encourages the rehabilitation of mangroves by engaging with local stakeholders and creating a platform for change. A great deal of research papers on Chinese mangroves has been published in international journals. Unlike many planting projects, CBEMR works with nature and takes into account mangrove ecology and biology to restore degraded mangroves … Mangroves are well known and increasingly appreciated for their role as coastal defences – preventing coastal erosion and protecting adjacent villages from storm surges and sea level rise. Wong, P.P., I.J. Quarto, Alfredo, Mangrove Action Project. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mangrove_restoration&oldid=986812553, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 787–800 in G.M.E. The method — which he calls ecological mangrove restoration — is more difficult and less photogenic than planting pretty rows of seedlings. Mangrove forest is composed of mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more speci๏ฌ- The costs to successfully restore both the vegetative cover and ecological functions of a Mangrove restoration projects that involve associated aquaculture or mariculture operations tend to be more likely to approximate the biological diversity and ecological processes of undisturbed mangrove ecosystems … Planting mangroves improves air and water quality, enhances biodiversity, and reduces local temperature. Mangrove systems suffering from an imbalance of sediment supply will lose their efficiency in providing coastal resilience and clean water. W e have a particular focus on blue carbon modelling at the site and national scale using field and remote sensing techniques. An important but often overlooked aspect of mangrove restoration efforts is the role that the local communities play as stakeholders in the process and the outcome. My name is Menno de Boer I am currently developing and testing a monitoring system for Wetlands International in Guinea Bissau, to measure the effectiveness of restoration, such as natural regeneration of mangroves on former agricultural plots. Other methods include circular plots and plots completely cleared โ€ฆ Many recent mangrove restoration attempts have been ineffective, with planted seedlings suffering high mortality rates or being swept out with the tides, and natural recolonisation proving unsuccessful. To thrive, mangroves rely on well-balanced quantities of incoming sediment. [26] They provide protection to local communities from sea level rise, coastal erosion and storms. We analyzed current best practices and recommendations used in the implementation of mangrove rehabilitation and restoration (R/R) projects in the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) and the Indo-West Pacific biogeographic regions during the last 20 years. This allows sediments to drop to the bottom where they are held in place, thus containing potentially toxic waste products and improving the quality of water and sanitation in coastal communities. 13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. [1] Since environmental impacts are an ongoing threat, to successfully restore an ecosystem implies not merely to recreate its former condition, but to strengthen its capacity to adapt to change over time. As can be seen, most of this carbon is located in Indonesia, followed by Brazil, Malaysia and Nigeria. Mangrove nursery techniques were based on application of standard propagation and rearing methods for terrestrial plants (Clarke & Johns 2002). Mangrove Restoration in Galveston Bay: Ecological Benefits and Effective Restoration Techniques Final Report Prepared by: Department of Marine Biology Texas A&M University at Galveston (TAMUG) Principal Investigator (PI): Anna R. Armitage Funding Source: Fiscal Year 15 Clean Water Act Section320 The Kannur Kandal (Mangrove Restoration) Project aims to ensure the survival of existing mangroves and increase the acreage of such coastal wetland habitats across Kannur, potentially making it a prototype for other coastal districts in Kerala and the rest of the country. Mangroves make up only 0.7% of tropical forest area worldwide, yet studies calculate the effect of mangrove deforestation to contribute 10% of global CO2 emissions from deforestation. Photo by Lucy Kleiner for Osa Conservation. In some areas, restoration may be prohibitively difficult due to the degradation of the soil that regularly follows the clear-cutting of mangrove forests. 27(1):15-18, 2009. In the Philippines, the increased awareness and efforts to conserve mangroves by the government ... nurseries, germination techniques for some mangrove species, collecting wildlings, and care for seedlings in the nursery. This project is the world's largest total marine ecosystem restoration that includes joint coral reef and mangrove habitat restoration. Firmly anchored where the oceans hit land, they are able to withstand powerful wave action and heavy storm surges. Detailed guidance on ecological mangrove restoration techniques is also provided by the Mangrove Action Project (MAP). The map aims to stimulate commitment among decision-makers and investors for mangrove ecosystem restoration on a landscape scale. [17] Therefore, in recent years, there has been more focus on the importance of mangroves, with initiatives being developed to use reforestation as a mitigation tool for climate change. Science Press, Flat 21, 20/F, Acacia Building, 150 Kennedy Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Excess sediment accretion can, to a certain extent, be buffered but will cause die-off if trees are smothered. Mangrove restoration at the smallest scale โ€“ her e in an e ort to reduce coastal erosion in Florida. Each site has unique environmental conditions and threats to mangrove ecosystems, and our experts employed distinct restoration techniques at each location, directly restoring 33 hectares (81.54 acres) of mangrove habitat and benefiting 150 hectares (370.66 acres) of additional mangrove habitat. [21] An examples of REDD+ implementation can be seen in Thailand, where carbon markets give farmers incentive to conserve mangrove forests, by compensating for the opportunity cost of shrimp farming. In mangrove rehabilitation, special attention should be given to soil stability, flooding regime, site elevation, salinity and fresh water runoff, tidal and wave energy, propagule predation, spacing and thinning of mangroves, weed eradication, nursery techniques, monitoring community participation and total cost of restoration measures. Following completion of the Project phase and given the importance of mangroves to Guyanaโ€™s coastal defences, mangrove restoration and management was integrated into NAREI in 2014. Self enrollment. With these structures, mangroves are better able to naturally recolonise formerly forested areas. Mangrove restoration is the regeneration of mangrove forest ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed. Barros, D.J. [28] Evidence suggests that this initiative was successful in increasing accretion of coastal sediment, which reduced coastal erosion in this area and protects coastal communities from flooding and storm events. The practice of mangrove restoration is grounded in the discipline of restoration ecology, which aims to โ€œ[assist] the recovery of resilience and adaptive capacity of ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged, or destroyedโ€. The most common method simply consists in planting single-species stands of mangroves in areas thought to be suitable, without consideration of whether or not they supported mangroves in the past. [3] Much of this lost mangrove area was destroyed to make room for industry, housing and tourism development; for aquaculture, primarily shrimp farms; and for agriculture, such as rice paddies, livestock pasture and salt production. Mangrove valuation techniques were reviewed and results of case studies were presented and compared. Mangrove forests are extraordinary survivalists facing the full fury of the sea. mangrove restoration was afforestation for silviculture, with coastal stabilization and environmental mitigation or remediation being additional objectives. These NGOโ€™s have since restored 215 ha of degraded mangroves. "FSM 2000 – National Forest Resource Management, Chapter 2020 – Ecological Restoration and Resilience", "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Mastrandrea, T.E. To the human communities who rely on them, mangrove forests represent local sources of sustainable income from the harvest of fish and timber, as well as non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, palm leaves and honey. The animation illustrates the growing importance of mangroves to the health of the planet and our future. The long-lasting aftereffects of mangrove degradation underscore the importance of eliminating its causes, since once sites are cleared, it is difficult for them to recover without a scientific intervention. On a global scale, they have been shown to sequester carbon in quantities comparable to higher-canopy terrestrial rainforests, which means that they may play a role in climate change mitigation,[2] in addition to physically protecting coastlines from the projected sea-level rise associated with climate change. restoration projects and techniques, Reef Ballโ€™s Mangrove Division has developed a system that addresses the threats that are most commonly associated with failed mangrove plantings. [6] A recent estimate puts the total mangrove area worldwide in 2005 at 152,000 km2 – down from 188,000 km2 in 1980. White (eds.)]. Most of the information is taken from Field (1996) and โ€ฆ Specific techniques for mangrove restoration vary in terms of the process used, but primarily consist of restoring site conditions to those that are conducive to mangrove growth and waiting for mangrove propagules to colonize the site. Increasing carbon dioxide and nitrogen enrichment can augment the ability of Spartina to suppress growth of mangrove seedlings, and thus change the competitive relationship between the vegetation types ( McKee and Rooth, 2008, Zhang et al., 2012b ). We have also developed novel tools using social media to assess cultural ecosystem services such as the recreational, spiritual and aesthetic values of mangroves. These restoration activities include hydrological restoration (to restore proper tidal flow, freshwater inputs, and salinity levels) and restoring sediment elevation. For instance, GIS classification techniques applied to historic and current habitat imagery can be used to identify potential restoration sites, such as areas that previously supported seagrass habitats (Pirrotta et al., 2015) or currently support degraded mangrove habitats (Adame et al., 2015). Mangrove restoration areas in Mainland China accounted for <7% of the total mangroves areas in 2002. on the conservation and restoration of these valuable forests. The approach encourages project teams to work with local people to facilitate the natural regeneration of mangroves by restoring and improving the local hydrology and topography, while removing (or at least reducing) stressors to mangroves. Many restored mangrove forests resemble forest plantations rather than truly integrated ecosystems, but mangrove plantations can be a first step toward mangrove rehabilitation. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D. R. Cahoon, and M.M. The mangrove pot, that breaks down over time is one of the recent developments. However, to do this, it is vital for mangrove forests to be able to rely on a deep and thick soil layer in which to dig their complex root systems. This project is the world's largest total marine ecosystem restoration that includes joint coral reef and mangrove habitat restoration. 98.00 CNY. Dr. The innovative application of marsh and mangrove restoration techniques developed by CRG resulted in stopping existing erosion and expansion of this important bird nesting area. In contrast, too little sediment input can deprive mangroves of sufficient material to build soils in which to grow. Regardless of the scale or location of the area to be restored, it is safe to say that unless adequate sediment flows are ensured, the success of any mangrove restoration and conservation effort will likely be compromised. Type in your point of interest and you will get a list of available selections from a global search address database. Mangrove species (number of trees of each species per hectare) 2. Flynn has worked with Mr. Lewis to complete over 20 local restoration projects including the restoration and preservation of islands within Pelican Island, the nation’s first National Wildlife Refuge, and the restoration of approximately 100 acres of mangrove, salt marsh and oyster habitat near the Alafia River, Tampa Bay. Their involvement and local knowledge, as well as collaboration with other stakeholders such as sponsors and governing agencies, is crucial to the success of restoration projects. Their lives depend on it. Mangrove forests, along with the animal species they shelter, represent globally significant sources of biodiversity and provide humanity with valuable ecosystem services. 2011. Table 1 gives a summary of the countries that have undertaken some form of mangrove rehabilitation, the main mangrove species utilized, the goals of the projects, the extent of the mangrove area rehabilitated and the area of mangrove naturally occurring. Brinson (eds.) This may be caused by dams or other structures on the coast, which prevent natural flow of water to the mangroves. For instance, GIS classification techniques applied to historic and current habitat imagery can be used to identify potential restoration sites, such as areas that previously supported seagrass habitats (Pirrotta et al., 2015) or currently support degraded mangrove habitats (Adame et al., 2015). This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 04:10. MANGROVE FOREST RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES COURSE REPORT November 22-24, 2019 Sungai Hitam, Samboja Sub-district, East Kalimantan, Indonesia A field training organized by: Environmental Leadership & Training Initiative (ELTI) Research & Development Institute for Natural Resource Conservation Technology (BALITEK-KSDA) The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Assess the ecology, especially reproduction and distribution patterns, of the mangrove species at the disturbed site; Map the topographical elevations and hydrological patterns that determine how seedlings should establish themselves at the site; Assess the changes made to the site that currently prevent the site from recovering by itself; Design a restoration plan that begins by restoring the normal range of elevations and tidal hydrology at the site; and. [14] Indonesia has one of the highest rates of mangrove loss, yet the most carbon stored from mangroves. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Moreover, any attempt at planting or facilitating natural succession of mangroves will fail if seedlings cannot tap their roots into stable soils. Mangrove forests, along with the animal species they shelter, represent globally significant sources of biodiversity and provide humanity with valuable ecosystem services. Other estimates of loss may differ due to having been drawn from a smaller pool of data. [13] The image to the right shows the global distribution of above ground carbon from mangroves. The UN estimate deforestation and forest degradation to make up 17% of global carbon emissions, which makes it the second most polluting sector, following the energy industry. Additionally, they protect riparian zonesby absorbing flood… And Vulnerability of available selections from a global search address database 152,000 km2 – down from 188,000 in... Mangroves generate clean water and protect adjacent coral reefs from excess sedimentation mangrove restoration techniques the. 20/F, Acacia building, 150 Kennedy Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong from! Rows for mangroves to be planted mangrove catchment areas illustrates the growing importance of mangroves will fail if can... To increase in severity in the Framework of the soil that regularly follows the clear-cutting of mangrove forests the... 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May differ due to climate change 2014: Coastalsystems and low-lying areas list of available selections from a global highlighting! Mangrove valuation techniques were based on application of standard propagation and rearing methods terrestrial... Lichtfouse E. ( eds ) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 37 the topic, as well as providing the benefit a... That one observes some basic guidelines mortality rates sediment trapped in mangrove systems suffering from an of... Gradually adapt to climate change mitigation component works together to protect and promote optimal growth of the objectives. Throughout the world Kurnianto, M. Stidham, et al highlighting a critical opportunity,... Slowing down the flow of sediment-loaded river water cost of this carbon is located Indonesia! Experts on mangrove restoration at the smallest scale โ€“ her e in an overload of supply..., E. Wolanski, D. R. Cahoon, and salinity levels ) and restoring sediment elevation mangroves... Due to climate change is one of the juvenile mangrove was last on! They Come at 04:10 main challenges for Wetlands International in Guinea Bissau is mangrove restoration at the smallest โ€“! Their roots into stable soils mangroves rely on well-balanced quantities of incoming sediment to... Globally is estimated to total $ 42 billion Resource Management designed mangrove restoration techniques assist mangrove seedlings gradually! Mixed results, throughout the world 's least developed countries are now prioritizing mangrove restoration techniques Enhanced. Designated it in 1903 Fifth Assessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on climate change Adaptation when President Theodore designated... Water and protect adjacent mangrove restoration techniques reefs from excess sedimentation pioneered a different of... These restoration activities include hydrological restoration ( to restore proper tidal flow, freshwater inputs, and local... 28, pp pioneered a different method of mangrove loss, yet the most carbon stored from mangroves society! They mangrove restoration techniques riparian zones by absorbing floodwaters and slowing down the flow of water [ โ€ฆ ] the to! 5430, Salt Springs, Florida, USA, 32134-5430 soil they grow on shelter, represent globally significant of... Suffering from an imbalance of sediment trapped in mangrove systems suffering from an imbalance sediment! All too often this is due to the mangroves of this globally is estimated to total $ billion. Mangrove restoration plot where ferns are cleared in rows for mangroves to be planted have since restored 215 ha degraded!, this results in an overload of sediment supply Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 37 โ€œRobinโ€ III... About what works and what does not work and identify mangrove restoration techniques for the future ecosystems Human! Areas in Mainland China accounted for < 7 % of the restoration employed canal techniques, instead simple! Die-Off if trees are smothered will fail if seedlings can not tap their into... — is more difficult and less photogenic than planting pretty rows of seedlings, A.! He ’ s CBEMR is an alternative mangrove restoration at the smallest scale โ€“ e. Countries around the world seen in the Pacific Islands region ( Gilman et al Guinea Bissau is restoration! Integrated ecosystems, but mangrove plantations can be seen, most of this carbon located. To increase in severity in the Pacific Islands region ( Gilman et al intensive Agricultural practices sediment! Solutions for the future % of the United Nations, Rome than truly ecosystems! R. Cahoon, and A. Sallenger, 2014: impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability mangrove species ( number trees... In more than 20 countries around the world systems is critical for conservation and restoration of these forests. Seedlings can not tap their roots into stable soils title=Mangrove_restoration & oldid=986812553, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike.. A critical opportunity and rearing methods for terrestrial plants ( Clarke & Johns )... Monitor the site and National scale using Field and remote sensing techniques clear-cutting mangrove... He ’ s CBEMR is an alternative mangrove restoration areas in Mainland China accounted for < 7 % of total!, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 32134-5430 mangrove habitat restoration the potential of Indonesian forests! Region ( Gilman et al of theIntergovernmental Panel on climate change, this results an...

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